Centos7二进制部署k8s-v1.20.4(etcd、docker)

一、前期准备

文章用到的组件下载地址在阿里云网盘里面:https://www.aliyundrive.com/s/NYFaoRRQEgh ,需要注册的点击这个连接:https://pages.aliyundrive.com/mobile-page/web/beinvited.html?code=e01ec49

备用连接:链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1ujyUcTE5MyMycczOx9FG_A
提取码:vm1s

1、生产环境可部署Kubernetes集群的两种方式

1)kubeadm:Kubeadm是一个K8s部署工具,提供kubeadm init和kubeadm join,用于快速部署Kubernetes集群。

官方地址:https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/setup-tools/kubeadm/kubeadm/

2)二进制包:从github下载发行版的二进制包,手动部署每个组件,组成Kubernetes集群。

Kubeadm降低部署门槛,但屏蔽了很多细节,遇到问题很难排查。如果想更容易可控,推荐使用二进制包部署Kubernetes集群,虽然手动部署麻烦点,期间可以学习很多工作原理,也利于后期维护。

2、安装要求

1) 一台或多台机器,操作系统 CentOS7.x-86_x64

2) 硬件配置:2GB或更多RAM,2个CPU或更多CPU,硬盘30GB或更多

3) 集群中所有机器之间网络互通

4) 可以访问外网,需要拉取镜像,如果服务器不能上网,需要提前下载镜像并导入节点

5) 禁止swap分区

3、环境版本

操作系统                       CentOS7.5_x64
Docker                          docker-20.10.5
Kubernetes                  1.20.4

4、单Master服务器规划

角色                      ip                            组件
k8s-master    192.168.112.110       kube-apiserver,kube-controller-manager,kube-scheduler,etcd
k8s-node1      192.168.112.112       kubelet,kube-proxy,docker etcd
k8s-node2      192.168.112.113      kubelet,kube-proxy,docker etcd

5、多Master服务器规划

角色                       ip                                                                        组件
k8s-master1    192.168.112.110      kube-apiserver,kube-controller-manager,kube-scheduler,etcd, nginx,flannel
k8s-master2    192.168.112.111       kube-apiserver,kube-controller-manager,kube-scheduler,etcd, nginx,flannel
k8s-node1        192.168.112.112      kubelet,kube-proxy,docker etcd、flannel
k8s-node2       192.168.112.113       kubelet,kube-proxy,docker etcd、flannel
k8s-node3       192.168.112.114       kubelet,kube-proxy,docker etcd、flannel

6、操作系统初始化配置

# 关闭防火墙
systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld

# 关闭selinux
sed -i 's/enforcing/disabled/' /etc/selinux/config  # 永久
setenforce 0  # 临时

# 关闭swap
swapoff -a  # 临时
sed -ri 's/.*swap.*/#&/' /etc/fstab    # 永久

# 根据规划设置主机名
hostnamectl set-hostname <hostname>

# 在master添加hosts
cat >> /etc/hosts << EOF
192.168.1.71 k8s-master
192.168.1.72 k8s-node1
192.168.1.73 k8s-node2
EOF

# 将桥接的IPv4流量传递到iptables的链
cat > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf << EOF
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
EOF
sysctl --system  # 生效

# 时间同步
yum -y install chrony
vim /etc/chrony.conf
server ntp6.aliyun.com iburst
allow 192.168.112.0/24 
local stratum 10
systemctl restart chronyd.service #启动服务
查看时间同步状态:
chronyc -a makestep
chronyc sourcestats
chronyc sources -v

二、部署etcd数据库

  Etcd 是一个分布式键值存储系统,Kubernetes使用Etcd进行数据存储,所以先准备一个Etcd数据库,为解决Etcd单点故障,应采用集群方式部署,这里使用3台组建集群,可容忍1台机器故障,当然,你也可以使用5台组建集群,可容忍2台机器故障。

节点名称IP地址
etcd-1192.168.112.110
etcd-2192.168.112.111
etcd-3192.168.112.112

 

 

 

 

 

注:为了节省机器,这里与k8s节点机器复用。也可以独立于k8s集群之外部署,只要apiserver能连接到就行。

1、准备cfssl证书生成工具

cfssl是一个开源的证书管理工具,使用json文件生成证书,相比openssl更方便使用。

找任意一台服务器操作,这里用Master节点。

wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd64
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux-amd64
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64
chmod +x cfssl_linux-amd64 cfssljson_linux-amd64 cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64
mv cfssl_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl
mv cfssljson_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssljson
mv cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 /usr/bin/cfssl-certinfo

2、生成Etcd证书

mkdir -p ~/TLS/{etcd,k8s}                创建工作目录
cd  ~/TLS/etcd                           进入工作目录
cat > ca-config.json << EOF              
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "175200h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "www": {
         "expiry": "175200h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF

cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd CA",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -        生成证书
ls *pem
ca-key.pem  ca.pem

3、创建证书申请文件,使用自签CA签发Etcd HTTPS证书

cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd",
    "hosts": [
    "192.168.112.110",
    "192.168.112.111",
    "192.168.112.112"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=www server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server        生成证书
ls server*pem
server-key.pem  server.pem

注:上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有etcd节点的集群内部通信IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP。

4、下载etcd二进制文件

下载地址:https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases/download/v3.4.9/etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64.tar.gz

5、部署etcd

创建工作目录并解压二进制包

mkdir /opt/etcd/{bin,cfg,ssl} -p
tar zxvf etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64.tar.gz
mv etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64/{etcd,etcdctl} /opt/etcd/bin/

6、创建etcd配置文件

cat > /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf << EOF
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-1"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.112.110:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.112.110:2379"
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.112.110:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.112.110:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://192.168.112.110:2380,etcd-2=https://192.168.112.111:2380,etcd-3=https://192.168.112.112:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
ETCD_HEARTBEAT_INTERVAL=100
ETCD_ELECTION_TIMEOUT=500
ETCD_SNAPSHOT_COUNT=5000
EOF

ETCD_NAME:节点名称,集群中唯一
ETCD_DATA_DIR:数据目录
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS:集群通信监听地址
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS:客户端访问监听地址
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS:集群通告地址
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS:客户端通告地址
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER:集群节点地址
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN:集群Token
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE:加入集群的当前状态,new是新集群,existing表示加入已有集群
ETCD_HEARTBEAT_INTERVAL:参数叫心跳间隔
ETCD_ELECTION_TIMEOUT:选举超时
ETCD_SNAPSHOT_COUNT:快照时间

7、使用systemd管理etcd

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target
[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf
ExecStart=/opt/etcd/bin/etcd \
--cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--peer-cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--peer-key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--peer-trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--logger=zap
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

8、拷贝刚才生成的证书,把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径

cp ~/TLS/etcd/ca*pem ~/TLS/etcd/server*pem /opt/etcd/ssl/

9、拷贝所有etcd文件至etcd-2,etcd-3节点

scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@192.168.112.111:/opt/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@192.168.112.111:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@192.168.112.112:/opt/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@192.168.112.112:/usr/lib/systemd/system/

注:在节点2和节点3分别修改etcd.conf配置文件中的节点名称和当前服务器IP:

vi /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-1"                            #修改此处,节点2改为etcd-2,节点3改为etcd-3
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.112.111:2380"                #修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.112.111:2379"              #修改此处为当前服务器IP

#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.112.111:2380"     #修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.112.111:2379"           #修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://192.168.112.110:2380,etcd-2=https://192.168.112.111:2380,etcd-3=https://192.168.112.112:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"

10、所有服务器启动etcd

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start etcd
systemctl enable etcd

11、查看集群状态

ETCDCTL_API=3 /opt/etcd/bin/etcdctl --cacert=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem --cert=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem --key=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem --endpoints="https://192.168.112.110:2379,https://192.168.112.111:2379,https://192.168.112.112:2379" endpoint health

https://192.168.112.110:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 8.154404ms
https://192.168.112.111:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 9.044117ms
https://192.168.112.112:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 10.000825ms

如果输出上面信息,就说明集群部署成功。如果有问题第一步先看日志:/var/log/message 或 journalctl -u etcd

三、安装部署docker

1、下载docker

下载地址:https://download.docker.com/linux/static/stable/x86_64/docker-20.10.5.tgz

2、解压二进制包,拷贝至其他节点

tar zxvf docker-20.10.5.tgz
scp docker/* root@192.168.112.111:/usr/local/bin
scp docker/* root@192.168.112.112:/usr/local/bin
scp docker/* root@192.168.112.113:/usr/local/bin
scp docker/* root@192.168.112.114:/usr/local/bin
mv docker/* /usr/bin

3、systemd管理docker(docker节点)

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Docker Application Container Engine
Documentation=https://docs.docker.com
After=network-online.target firewalld.service
Wants=network-online.target
[Service]
Type=notify
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/dockerd
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
LimitNOFILE=infinity
LimitNPROC=infinity
LimitCORE=infinity
TimeoutStartSec=0
Delegate=yes
KillMode=process
Restart=on-failure
StartLimitBurst=3
StartLimitInterval=60s
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

4、创建配置文件(docker节点)

mkdir /etc/docker
cat > /etc/docker/daemon.json << EOF
{
  "registry-mirrors": ["https://b9pmyelo.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
}
EOF

5、启动并设置开机启动(docker节点)

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start docker
systemctl enable docker

 

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